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Quantum Dot Artificial Atom

To understand Quantum Dot Artificial Atom it is helpful to know how to make them. One way to confine electrons in a small region is by employing material boundaries—by surrounding a metal particle with insulator, for example. Alternatively, one can use electric fields to confine electrons to a small region within a semiconductor. Either method requires fabricating very small structures. This is accomplished by the techniques of electron and x-ray lithography.